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Galician-Portuguese

The Galician and Portuguese standards of the language diverged over time, following independent evolutionary paths. Portuguese was the official language of the Portuguese chancellery, while Galician was the usual language not only of troubadours and peasants, but also of local noblemen and clergy, and of their officials, so forging and maintaining two slightly different standards. During the reign of Alfonso X , Spanish became the official language of the chancellery of the Kingdom of Castile. Spanish was progressively introduced through Royal decrees and the edicts of foreign churchmen and officials.

This led, from the late 15th century on, to the end of legal documents in Galician; the last ones were issued around In spite of Galician being the most spoken language, during the 17th century the elites of the Kingdom began speaking Spanish, most notably in towns and cities.

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The linguistic situation in Galicia became one of diglossia , with Galician as the low variety and Spanish as the high one. The Galician spoken and written then is usually referred to as Middle Galician. Middle Galician is known mostly through popular literature songs, carols, proverbs, theatrical scripts, personal letters , but also through the frequent apparition of Galician interferences and personal and place names in local works and documents otherwise written in Spanish. Other important sources are a number of sonnets and other lyric poetry, as well as other literate productions, including the forgery of allegedly mediaeval scriptures or chronicles under diverse pretensions—usually to show the ancient nobility of the forger's family—being these writings elaborated in an archaic looking Galician which nevertheless could not conceal the state of the language during this period.

During the 19th century a thriving literature developed, in what was called the Rexurdimento Resurgence , of the Galician language. An important landmark was the establishment of the Seminario de Estudos Galegos in , devoted to research and study of Galician culture. Following the victory of General Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War , the written or public use of the Galician language was outlawed.

Publishing of Galician-language material revived on a small scale in the s. With the advent of democracy, Galician has been brought into the country's institutions, and it is now co-official with Spanish in Galicia.

Today, the most common language for everyday use in the largest cities of Galicia is Spanish rather than Galician, as a result of this long process of language shift. However, Galician is still the main language in rural areas. Use of Galician splits by age, with over half of those over 45 indicating that Galician is their primary language, with lower numbers for the younger population.

Those under 45 were more likely than those over 45 to answer that they never use Galician. Use of Galician also varies greatly depending on the regions and municipalities of Galiza. Some authors are of the opinion that Galician possesses no real dialects. Some of the main features which distinguish the three blocks are:.

Each dialectal area is then further defined by these and other more restricted traits or isoglosses:. Standard Galician is usually based on Central Galician characteristics, but it also incorporates western and eastern traits and features. Galician allows pronominal clitics to be attached to indicative and subjunctive forms, as does Portuguese, unlike modern Spanish. After many centuries of close contact between the two languages, Galician has also adopted many loan words from Spanish, and some calques of Spanish syntax.

Galician usually makes the difference according to gender and categorizes words as masculine "o rapaz" the young man or feminine "a rapaza" the young woman. Galician expresses the difference in number with a form for the singular and another for the plural.

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There are two different ways of addressing people: one is the most usual informal pronoun "ti" for the second person singular and "vos" for the second person plural. There are formal ways of addressing directly people "vostede" for the singular and "vostedes" for the plural.

The last review of the official grammar has established that the exclamation and question marks will appear only at the end of the sentence if there is no risk of confusion, thus deprecating the general use of Spanish-like inverted question and exclamation marks. The verb is inflected. There are regular and irregular verbs in the language. All words have accent in Galician, considering that the accent is the fact of a particular syllable carrying the most stress in a word. The tilde has some other functions. These norms were not accepted by some sectors desiring a norm closer to modern Portuguese see reintegrationism.

In July , the Royal Galician Academy modified the language normative to admit and promote some archaic Galician-Portuguese forms conserved in modern Portuguese, merging the NOMIG and the main proposals of the moderate sectors of reintegrationism; the resulting orthography is used by the vast majority of media, cultural production and virtually all official matters including education. There still exists a minoritary reintegrationist movement that opts for the use of writing systems that range from adapted to whole Portuguese orthography.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Language of the Western Ibero-Romance. This article is about the West Iberian language related to Portuguese. For the extinct Celtic language from Asia Minor, see Galatian language. For the Iberian Celtic language, see Gallaecian language. For the language spoken in Galicia Eastern Europe , see Rusyn language.

For the creation myth from Bugis, Indonesia, see Sureq Galigo. For the type of primate, see Galago. Language family. Writing system. Distribution of the various dialects of Galician in Spain and the extreme north of Portugal. Central Transitional. Eastern Transitional. Central Western. Fala language.

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Galician-Portuguese - Wikipedia

Excerpt of medieval Galician poetry with English translation. Further information: Galician-Portuguese. A 13th-century Galician-Portuguese Cantiga. Main article: Galician phonology. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Marine Conservation Society. Belfast, pp. Primeros resultados.


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